The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Italian: Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Seit seiner Errichtung bis zum heutigen Tage tritt das im Westen emporragende Gebäude des Tabulariums als imposanter Hintergrund des Forums in Erscheinung. [41], The Roman Forum was a site for many artists and architects studying in Rome to sketch during the 17th through the 19th century. Wir sind Mitglied. [4], Its long dimension was oriented northwest to southeast and extended from the foot of the Capitoline Hill to that of the Velian Hill. Turner painted Modern Rome – Campo Vaccino in 1839, following his final trip to the city. DuMont, Köln 1975, ISBN 3-7701-0707-1, S. 32–39. From then on only two authorities in Rome had the power to issue such licenses: the Vatican and the Conservators. Torget är beläget mellan kullarna Capitolium, Palatinen och den lägre Velia.Ena änden av torget sluttar svagt ner från Palatinen. Richmond, Ian Archibald, et al. The emperor Constans who visited the city in 665 AD stripped the lead roofs which exposed the monumental buildings to the weather and hastened deterioration. Alle Rechte vorbehalten Baccelli. This proved to be the last monumental addition made to the Forum. Roman Forum, Latin Forum Romanum, most important forum in ancient Rome, situated on low ground between the Palatine and Capitoline hills. [47] The eight remaining columns are all that is left of the illustrious temple. Some 130 years later, Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia, along with the new Curia Julia, refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. Experts disagree whether it is a memorial tomb dedicated to Rome's legendary founder, Romulus. Der Ort, der über Jahrhunderte hinweg der Mittelpunkt der römischen - und damit der bekannten - Welt war: Das Forum Romanum. [22] The Forum was also witness to the assassination of a Roman Emperor in 69 AD: Galba had set out from the palace to meet rebels but was so feeble that he had to be carried in a litter. The Temple of Divius Iulius was placed between Caesar's funeral pyre and the Regia. width: 300px; The Basilica Fulvia was dedicated on the north side of the Forum square in 179 BC. The Forum's basilicas during the Imperial period—the Basilica Aemilia on the north and the Basilica Julia on the south—defined its long sides and its final form. -->, www.medienwerkstatt.de For the general structure found in many Roman cities, see. Since the early Forum area included pools of stagnant water, the most easily accessible area was the northern part of the valley which was designated as the Comitium. Forum Romanum (latin för "det romerska torget", på italienska Foro Romano) var i det antika Rom ett torg som utgjorde ett politisk, socialt, religiöst och juridiskt centrum. The reign of Constantine the Great saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius (312 AD). Though its exact date of completion is not known, it stands as one of the oldest buildings in the Forum Romanum. In the 80s BC, during the dictatorship of Sulla, major work was done on the Forum including the raising of the plaza level by almost a meter and the laying of permanent marble paving stones. Little is known about when the temple was built, as the original temple is believed to have been burnt down by the Gauls early in the fourth century. These acts were meant to provide good fortune to those entering and using the temple. By the Imperial period, the large public buildings that crowded around the central square had reduced the open area to a rectangle of about 130 by 50 meters. However it is understood that it was also rebuilt by Munatius Plancus in 42 BC. Leonard von Matt, Franco Barelli: Rom. Je to zhruba obdélné náměstí o rozměrech asi 130x60 m mezi pahorky Kapitol a Palatin, kterým prochází hlavní římská cesta Via Sacra, spojující pahorek Kapitol s Koloseem.Konaly se zde slavnosti, triumfální průvody, soudy, volby, politická shromáždění i trhy. This began the tradition of locus popularis, in which even young nobles were expected to speak to the people from the Rostra. Fora for cattle, pork, vegetables and wine specialised in their niche products and the associated deities around them. starb, präsentierte sich das Forum Romanum in einem grundlegend neuen Erscheinungsbild. Around the wall, pottery remains and food scraps allowed archeologists to date the likely construction of the wall to the 8th or 9th century BC, over a century before the traditional date of Rome's founding. Events taking place in the Forum included: 1. As political speeches, civil trials, and other public affairs began to take up more and more space in the Forum, additional fora throughout the city began to emerge to expand on specific needs of the growing population. An anonymous 8th-century Einsiedeln Itinerary reports that the Forum was already falling apart at that time. August 14 n.Chr. Ein eindrucksvolles Bild vom bunten Treiben auf dem Forum vermittelt Plau… Das Forum Romanum hatte rund tausend Jahre eine wichtige Funktion für das Römische Reich. Wieder war der Platz in seiner räumlichen Inszenierung neu erfunden worden – und dies in Ausmaßen, wie sie ähnlich einschneidend zuvor nur unter Augustus erfolgt waren (s. Augustus II). Notable artists of the Forum include Maerten van Heemskerck, Pirro Ligorio, Canaletto, Claude Lorrain, Giovanni Paolo Panini, Hubert Robert, J.M.W. In 63 BC, Cicero delivered his famous speech denouncing the companions of the conspirator Catiline at the Forum (in the Temple of Concord, whose spacious hall was sometimes used as a meeting place by the Senators). Jh. The return of Pope Urban V from Avignon in 1367 led to an increased interest in ancient monuments, partly for their moral lesson and partly as a quarry for new buildings being undertaken in Rome after a long lapse. } Kovac, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 3-8300-3397-4. Share: Looking for an hotel in Rome? The focus of many of these works produced by visiting Northern artists was on current state of the Roman Forum, known locally as the "Campo Vaccino", or "cow field", due to the livestock who grazed on the largely ignored section of the city. Nicht nur zur Zeit der römischen Antike, sondern auch Jahrhunderte später schufen Künstler - wie Van Heemskerck, Lorrain, Pannini, Turner und andere - Kunstwerke, die das Forum Romanum zum Gegenstand hatten. Cumberland, US: Harvard University Press, 2009. [42], The excavation by Carlo Fea, who began clearing the debris from the Arch of Septimius Severus in 1803 marked the beginning of clearing the Forum. Watkin, David, and Watkin, David. Die Regia war im antiken Rom ein Gebäude an der Ostseite des Forum Romanum in unmittelbarer Nähe des Vesta-Tempels. [6] This was drained by the Tarquins with the Cloaca Maxima. )[18], In 78 BC, the immense Tabularium (Records Hall) was built at the Capitoline Hill end of the Forum by order of the consuls for that year, M. Aemilius Lepidus and Q. Lutatius Catulus. The Forum proper included this square, the buildings facing it and, sometimes, an additional area (the Forum Adjectum) extending southeast as far as the Arch of Titus. ProQuest ebrary. Sein guter Erhaltungszustand ist Folge der über die Jahrhunderte hinweg erfolgten kontinuierlichen Benutzung, auch wenn die obersten Etagen des antiken Baus im 16. position: relative; Nine years later, the Basilica Sempronia was dedicated on the south side.[16]. These state-funded excavations were led by Dr. Giacomo Boni until he died in 1925, stopping briefly during World War I. Nach oben (c) digitales-forum-romanum Impressum Quelle: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin / Winckelmann-Institut (www.digitales-forum-romanum.de) Als Augustus am 19. Die politischen Institutionen Senat und Volksversammlung und damit auch ihre Versammlungsstätten wurden folglich als Räume der politischen Entscheidungsfindung dabei umso wichtiger. In der Zeit der Republik fielen hier wichtige politische Entscheidungen. Kovac, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 3-8300-3397-4. During the Middle Ages, though the memory of the Forum Romanum persisted, its monuments were for the most part buried under debris, and its location was designated the "Campo Vaccino" or "cattle field,"[25] located between the Capitoline Hill and the Colosseum. A tribune known as Caius Licinius (consul in 361 BC) is said to have been the first to turn away from the elite towards the Forum, an act symbolically repeated two centuries later by Gaius Gracchus.[15]. To prepare the Forum for the procession intended to imitate the pageantry of the ancient Roman triumph, the papal authorities undertook sweeping demolitions of the many medieval structures on the site, to reveal and better display the ancient monuments. Kunst und Kultur der Ewigen Stadt. A more generous estimate, including the surrounding buildings, would be about 200 by 75 meters tall. float: none; ... Im krassen Gegensatz dazu wurden erste Bemuehungen gemacht, die urspruengliche Funktion und Gestalt des Forums zu deuten. The Forum Romanum suffered some of its worst depredations during the Italian Renaissance, particularly in the decade between 1540 and 1550, when Pope Paul III exploited it intensively for material to build the new Saint Peter's Basilica. First arch of Augustus in the Roman Forum Drawing of the Arch of Augustus Arch of Augustus present Maps, Paintings and Drawings . Did you like this place? [13], The 5th century BC witnessed the earliest Forum temples with known dates of construction: the Temple of Saturn (497 BC) and the Temple of Castor and Pollux (484 BC). He is said to have converted that temple into the Curia Hostilia close to where the Senate originally met in an old Etruscan hut. The populated areas contracted to the river. The city's estimated population fell from 750,000–800,000 to 450,000 in 450 AD to 250,000 by 500 AD. Hier wurden die … Excavations were officially begun in 1898 by the Italian government under the Minister of Public Instruction, Dr. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form, then served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political, judicial and religious pursuits in ever greater numbers. Excavations in the forum continue, with new discoveries by archeologists working in the forum since 2009 leading to questions about Rome's exact age. A Forum Romanum vagy, ahogy a rómaiak gyakrabban nevezték Forum Magnum (a mai Campo di Vaccino) az ókori Róma fő köztere, a Capitolium és Palatinus domb közötti tér volt, mely a kereskedelmi és politikai világ érintkezőhelyének számított. [20] That year, two supremely dramatic events were witnessed by the Forum, perhaps the most famous ever to transpire there: Marc Antony's funeral oration for Caesar (immortalized in Shakespeare's famous play) was delivered from the partially completed speaker's platform known as the New Rostra and the public burning of Caesar's body occurred on a site directly across from the Rostra around which the Temple to the Deified Caesar was subsequently built by his great-nephew Octavius (Augustus). The Forum was considered the heart of Rome. Besides the Arch of Augustus, which was also constructed following a Roman victory against the Parthians, it is the only triumphal arch in the Forum. [citation needed], Rome's second king, Numa Pompilius (r. 715–673 BC), is said to have begun the cult of Vesta, building its house and temple as well as the Regia as the city's first royal palace. padding-top: 4px; The Temple of Saturn was one of the more significant buildings located in the Roman Forum. v.Chr. [33] Historically, the maestri and the Conservatori saw themselves as guardians of Rome's ancient legacy and zealously protected the ruins in the forum from further destruction, but in the 15th century the Papacy gradually encroached upon these prerogatives. [24] The latter represents the best-preserved tetrarchic building in Rome. Der Tempel der Vesta (lat. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia (8th century BC), and the Temple of Vesta (7th century BC), as well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome. The deepest level excavated was 3.60 meters above sea level. [46], The Roman Forum has been a source of inspiration for visual artists for centuries. He refurbished and reorganized it, building anew the Temple of Saturn, Temple of Vesta and the Curia Julis. Coordinates: 41°53′32″N 12°29′07″E / 41.8922°N 12.4852°E / 41.8922; 12.4852. [45], In 2020, Italian archaeologists discovered a sarcophagus and a circular altar dating to the 6th century BC. Roman Forum Map Interactive map and PDF to download. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men. Turner and many others. On 1 August 608, the Column of Phocas, a Roman monumental column, was erected before the Rostra and dedicated or rededicated in honour of the Eastern Roman Emperor Phocas. According to tradition, the Forum's beginnings are connected with the alliance between Romulus, the first king of Rome controlling the Palatine Hill, and his rival, Titus Tatius, who occupied the Capitoline Hill. Diese Seiten werden kostenlos für Kinder Over time, the Comitium was lost to the ever-growing Curia and to Julius Caesar's rearrangements before his assassination in 44 BC. After Julius Caesar's death, and the end of the subsequent Civil Wars, Augustus would finish his great-uncle's work, giving the Forum its final form. [3] This is the case despite attempts, with some success, to impose some order there, by Sulla, Julius Caesar, Augustus and others. Das Forum als Kunstwerk iele Künstler zog das Forum Romanum in seinen Bann. Let us know what you enjoyed most or give us valuable advice to improve visits! Since the 12th century, when Rome's civic government was formed, responsibility for protecting the ruins of the forum fell to the maestri di strade under the authority of the Conservatori, Rome's senior magistrates. width: 300px; Wonders of the World Ser. Er befand sich hinter dem Caesar- und Dioskurentempel. In 600 BC Tarquinius Priscus had the area paved for the first time. [9], From here they would mount the Capitoline Rise (Clivus Capitolinus) up to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the summit of the Capitol. The Senate House, government offices, tribunals, temples, memorials and statues gradually cluttered the area. [37], Within the context of these disputes over jurisdiction, ruins in the forum were increasingly exploited and stripped. [28][29] Just a few years before, in 1536, the Pope had issued an invitation to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to hold a triumph in Rome on his return from conquering Tunis in North Africa. Criminal trials 4. .BKsearchbox { Public meetings 8. Im Laufe dieser Zeit kam es zu einer Verlagerung der Funktion des Forums. Kunst und Kultur der Ewigen Stadt. 38) 310f. The Temple's location and reconstruction of adjacent structures resulted in greater organization akin to the Forum of Caesar. [32] The demand for building materials consequently increased significantly, making the forum a convenient quarry for stone and marble. Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate (Porta Triumphalis) and circumnavigated the Palatine Hill (counterclockwise) before proceeding from the Velian Hill down the Via Sacra and into the Forum. Es war vom 5. 39 Platner 1929 (wie Anm. präsentierte sich das Forum Romanum erneut in einer stark veränderten Physiognomie. [10], The Forum was outside the walls of the original Sabine fortress, which was entered through the Porta Saturni. Particularly important and unprecedented political events took place in 133 BC when, in the midst of riots in and around the Forum, the Tribune Tiberius Gracchus was lynched there by a group of Senators. padding-left: 20px; Jahrhundert nach Christus das politische, religiöse, kulturelle und wirtschaftliche Zentrum des antiken Roms. The earliest basilicas (large, aisled halls) were introduced to the Forum in 184 BC by Marcus Porcius Cato, which began the process of "monumentalizing" the site.
Griechischer Regierungschef 2020, Maxdome Account Löschen, Autumn Leaves Guitar Chords, Edward Hopper Tankstelle, Flug Und Hotel Mit Hund Ab Hamburg, Tschechische Kronen Euro Umrechnung, Milka Luflée Kokos Wo Kaufen, Nothing Else Matters Tabs Acoustic, Agrarwetter Tirol 14 Tage, Maestro Durch Die Nacht Lyrics,